Islam and Jihad

Post tags: | islam | islam_jihad | religion |

Jihad Watch online - Robert Spencer site

historyofislam.com/contents

        Prof. Dr. Nazeer Ahmed, PhD
        Prof. Dr. Ibrahim B. Syed, DSc
        Dr. Ibrahim Gamard, PhD
        Dr. Abdullah Hakim Quik, PhD
        Prof. Dr. Abdel Latif Aljibury, PhD
        

Charles Martel - Battle of Tours

thoughtco.com article Muslim Invasions: Charles Martel

Bill Warner, PhD - Political Islam

politicalislam.com

Political Islam Youtube channel

Political Islam youtube Bill Warner, PhD: Why We Are Afraid, No Subtitles

Red Ice TV youtube Dr. Bill Warner - The True History of Muslim Conquests - Hour 1

Medina 1/2 Jewish

Apostasy wars with Abu Baqr

Red Ice TV youtube Radio 3Fourteen - Dr. Bill Warner - Political Islam: History of Islam in Europe

The Christian Post - search: Islam

Nonie Darwish - Arabs for Israel

Answering Islam Site

americanthinker.com/articles Can Islam ever be reformed? By Nonie Darwish

Muslim reformer Zuhdi Jasser has recently attacked leaders of the anti-Jihad movement in America.

In 2007 a horrific article was written against Wafa Sultan and myself in the cover of a prominent Egyptian magazine Rose El Yousef, in which we were both condemned as “apostates” who are just as bad as Muslim terrorists, Taliban leaders and the blind Sheikh, Omar Abdel-Rahman, who caused the 1993 world trade center bombing. Note that the Egyptian magazine did not place a photo of Usama Bin Laden, because he was popular among many Muslims.

wikipedia.org/wiki Wafa Sultan

Book (2009). A God Who Hates by Wafa Sultan

        Paperback: 256 pages
        Publisher: St. Martin's Griffin; Reprint edition (April 26, 2011)
        Language: English
        ISBN-10: 0312538367
        ISBN-13: 978-0312538361
        

M. Zuhdi Jasser

A Battle for the Soul of Islam An American Muslim Patriot’s Fight to Save His Faith

by M. Zuhdi Jasser

Former Muslims Unitied Site

Jim Sharp Class

jimsharp87@gmail.com

http://www.meforum.org/

Daniel Pipes, Director, Middle East Forum

Sandra Solomon

The Glazov Gang youtube Sandra Solomon Moment: What Islam Taught Me About the Jews.

Political Islam youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8CvmkdOh9Y0

Links

Islam 101 by Gregory M. Davis pdf

historyofjihad.org

History of Islamic Conquest

711 to 788 - Umayyad conquest of Hispania

wikipedia.org/wiki Umayyad conquest of Hispania

Forces commanded by Tariq ibn Ziyad disembarked in early 711 at Gibraltar at the head of an army consisting of Berbers (north-western Africa). He campaigned his way northward after the decisive Battle of Guadalete against the usurper Roderic, after which he was reinforced by an Arab force led by his superior wali Musa ibn Nusair. By 717, the combined force had crossed the Pyrenees into Septimania and Provence (734).

Battle of Toulouse (721)

wikipedia.org/wiki Battle of Toulouse (721)

The Battle of Toulouse (721) was a victory of an Aquitanian Christian army led by Duke Odo of Aquitaine over an Umayyad Muslim army besieging the city of Toulouse, and led by the governor of Al-Andalus, Al-Samh ibn Malik al-Khawlani. The victory checked the spread of Umayyad control westward from Narbonne into Aquitaine.

Aftermath

Arab historians agree that the Battle of Toulouse was a total disaster. After the defeat, some Umayyad officials and soldiers managed to escape, among them Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi. However, the clash halted indefinitely the Umayyad expansion northwards. Al-Andalus was at the time re-organising into a new after-Gothic order. The Umayyads kept the military initiative raiding several times the south of Gaul (up to Autun in 725), but avoided new serious campaigns into the north-west.

Odo’s victory earned him widespread renown in Aquitaine and recognition abroad, he came up reinforced. He was hailed as champion of Christianity by the Pope in Rome, and was even presented with gifts. Charles steered clear of the political and military developments in the south of Gaul for another 10 years, until 732.

The fateful engagement, the so-called Balat Al Shuhada of Toulouse, would be still remembered in memorials by Al-Andalus Muslims for the following 450 years, as opposed to the Battle of Poitiers, held as a minor battle.

Discussion

Some historians believe that the Battle of Toulouse halted the Muslim conquest of Europe even more than the later—and more celebrated—Battle of Tours (10 October 732, between Tours and Poitiers), but this is highly problematic: for even had the Arabs won at Toulouse, they still would have had to conquer the Franks to retain control of the region. However, nearly all historians agree that the Christian victory at Toulouse was important in a macrohistorical sense in that it gave Charles Martel badly needed time to strengthen his grip on power and build the veteran army which stood him in such good stead eleven years later at Tours. The eleven years between Toulouse and Tours without question gave him time to fully secure power, inspire the loyalty of his troops, and, most importantly, drill the core of veterans who stood so stoutly in 732.

While Odo faded into history after his horrific defeat at Bordeaux, the Battle of Toulouse is important as it bought time for Martel to prepare for the invasion mounted by Abd al Rahman in 732. However, others (e.g. Archibald Lewis, Roger Collins, etc.) hold that Umayyad attacks were raids or razzias, like the one reaching as far north as Autun in 725, and not real attempts to conquer Francia. Ironically, while Odo is forgotten, Martel was hailed in later times as the “savior of Europe” by many Western and European authors and academic figures.

wikipedia.org/wiki Battle of the River Garonne, also known as the Battle of Bordeaux

The Battle of the River Garonne, also known as the Battle of Bordeaux, was fought in 732 between an Umayyad army led by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, governor of Al-Andalus, and Aquitanian forces led by Duke Odo of Aquitaine.

The battle

Following the victory at Bordeaux, Abdul Rahman engaged Odo’s forces on the Garonne River, or possibly at the Dordogne River, in his march northward. Abdul Rahman’s army was numbered 70,000 to 80,000 and defeated Odo, according to Benett. However, such huge figures on the tradition of medieval chronicles have been questioned, since the expedition was an unusually large raid against the Aquitanian duke Odo (Lewis, A.R.; Collins, R.). The defeat was comprehensive and most of Odo’s forces were wiped out or ran in disarray, after which the Umayyads looted the rich monasteries of northern Aquitaine before resuming their march towards Tours, a town said to be holding abundant wealth and treasures.

Aftermath

This plundering gave Odo enough time to re-organise his Aquitanian troops and according to chronicles notified Charles of the impending danger to the Frankish kingdom. The Frankish leader took notice, accepted Odo’s formal submission and Odo joined Charles’s army to form its left wing. The Umayyad armies were finally defeated by forces (size of the two armies is debated by modern historians) led by Charles Martel at the Battle of Tours that took place somewhere between Poitiers and Tours on 10 October, 732 (or 733 according to latest research).

The farthest reaching political consequences of this defeat were Charles Martel’s intervention in Aquitaine, the temporary end of Basque-Aquitanian sovereignty and Odo’s formal submission to Charles, confirmed after the Battle of Tours-Poitiers.

wikipedia.org/wiki 732AD - Battle of Tours

The Battle of Tours (10 October 732) — also called the Battle of Poitiers and, by Arab sources, the Battle of the Palace of the Martyrs

The Battle of Tours followed two decades of Umayyad conquests in Europe which had begun with the invasion of the Visigothic Christian Kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula in 711. These were followed by military expeditions into the Frankish territories of Gaul, former provinces of the Roman Empire. Umayyad military campaigns had reached northward into Aquitaine and Burgundy, including a major engagement at Bordeaux and a raid on Autun. Charles’s victory is widely believed to have stopped the northward advance of Umayyad forces from the Iberian Peninsula, and to have preserved Christianity in Europe during a period when Muslim rule was overrunning the remains of the old Roman and Persian Empires.

Moors

The invasion of Hispania, and then Gaul, was led by the Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic: بنو أمية banū umayya / الأمويون al-umawiyyūn‎‎ also “Umawi”), the first dynasty of caliphs of the Islamic empire after the reign of the Rashidun Caliphs (Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali) ended. The Umayyad Caliphate, at the time of the Battle of Tours, was perhaps the world’s foremost military power. Great expansion of the Caliphate occurred under the reign of the Umayyads. Muslim armies pushed east across Persia and west across North Africa through the late 7th century.

In 711-18, Tariq ibn Ziyad led forces across the Strait of Gibraltar to conquer the Visigothic Kingdom of Hispania. The Muslim empire under the Umayyads was now a vast domain that ruled a diverse array of peoples. It had destroyed what were the two former foremost military powers, the Sasanian Empire, which it absorbed completely, and the greater part of the Byzantine Empire, including Syria, Armenia and North Africa, although Leo the Isaurian stemmed the tide when he defeated the Umayyads at the Battle of Akroinon (739), their final campaign in Anatolia.

Franks

The Frankish realm under Charles Martel was the foremost military power of Western Europe. During most of his tenure in office as commander-in-chief of the Franks, it consisted of north and eastern France (Austrasia, Neustria and Burgundy), most of western Germany, and the Low Countries (Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands). The Frankish realm had begun to progress towards becoming the first real imperial power in western Europe since the fall of Rome. However, it continued to struggle against external forces such as the Saxons, Frisians, and other opponents such as the Basque-Aquitanians led by Odo the Great (Old French: Eudes), Duke over Aquitaine and Vasconia.